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Omega-3, omega-6 and total dietary polyunsaturated fat on cancer incidence: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials

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  • 58538_0_merged_1570734625

    Submitted manuscript, 3 MB, PDF-document

    Embargo ends: 27/07/20

  • Supplementary

    Accepted author manuscript, 3 MB, PDF-document

    Embargo ends: 29/08/20

  • Accepted_Manuscript

    Accepted author manuscript, 2 MB, PDF-document

    Embargo ends: 29/08/20

DOI

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Abstract

Background
The relationship between long-chain omega-3 (LCn3), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), omega-6 and total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intakes and cancer risk is unclear.

Methods
We searched Medline, Embase, CENTRAL and trials registries for RCTs comparing higher with lower LCn3, ALA, omega-6 and/or total PUFA, that assessed cancers over ≥12 months. Random-effects meta-analyses, sensitivity analyses, subgrouping, risk of bias and GRADE were used.

Results
We included 47 RCTs (108,194 participants). Increasing LCn3 has little or no effect on cancer diagnosis (RR1.02, 95% CI 0.98-1.07), cancer death (RR0.97, 95% CI 0.90-1.06) or breast cancer diagnosis (RR1.03, 95% CI 0.89-1.20); increasing ALA has little or no effect on cancer death (all high/moderate-quality evidence). Increasing LCn3 (NNTH 334, RR1.10, 95% CI 0.97-1.24) and ALA (NNTH 334, RR1.30, 95% CI 0.72-2.32) may slightly increase prostate cancer risk; increasing total PUFA may slightly increase risk of cancer diagnosis (NNTH 125, RR1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.42) and cancer death (NNTH 500, RR1.10, 95% CI 0.48-2.49) but total PUFA doses were very high in some trials.

Conclusions
The most extensive systematic review to assess effects of increasing PUFAs on cancer risk found increasing total PUFA may very slightly increase cancer risk, offset by small protective effects on cardiovascular diseases.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalBritish Journal of Cancer
Early online date29 Feb 2020
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 29 Feb 2020
Peer-reviewedYes

Keywords

    Research areas

  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3, Fatty Acids, Omega-6, Cancer, Breast Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Meta-Analysis, Fatty Acids, Unsaturated, Randomised Controlled Trial, SUPPLEMENTS, ACIDS, BIAS, OMEGA-3-FATTY-ACIDS, PREVENTION, RISK, BREAST-CANCER, INTERVENTIONS, EMPIRICAL-EVIDENCE, OUTCOMES

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