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Climate, conflict and forced migration

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Abstract

Despite the lack of robust empirical evidence, a growing number of media reports attempt to link climate change to the ongoing violent conflicts in Syria and other parts of the world, as well as to the migration crisis in Europe. Exploiting bilateral data on asylum seeking applications for 157 countries over the period 2006–2015, we assess the determinants of refugee flows using a gravity model which accounts for endogenous selection in order to examine the causal link between climate, conflict and forced migration. Our results indicate that climatic conditions, by affecting drought severity and the likelihood of armed conflict, played a significant role as an explanatory factor for asylum seeking in the period 2011–2015. The effect of climate on conflict occurrence is particularly relevant for countries in Western Asia in the period 2010–2012 during when many countries were undergoing political transformation. This finding suggests that the impact of climate on conflict and asylum seeking flows is limited to specific time period and contexts.

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-249
Number of pages11
JournalGlobal Environmental Change
Volume54
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jan 2019
Peer-reviewedYes

Keywords

    Research areas

  • Asylum seeker, Climate change, Conflict, Endogenous selection, Forced migration, Gravity model, Refugee, Simultaneous equations, SPEI

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